When scientific methods are used for studying the particular problem is careful consideration for a particular concern is called research. What is a systematic inquiry which is used to predict or explain and also control the phenomena which are observed, and it invoice deductive or inductive methods.
Deductive methods are conducted to confirm the phenomenon which is observed whereas, on the other hand, the inductive method is used to analyze a problem is observed. The primary intention of research is to understand the nature of the problem and provider solution or present the problem in a detailed manner.
Research is divided into different types for the convenience of the researcher and upon the nature of the research.
6 Types of Research
1) Basic Research
The sole purpose of basic research is to increase the knowledge or enhancement of knowledge. Basic research does not have commercial potential immediately however what time it may develop an extremely lucrative commercial value.
The researchers are conducted for the welfare of human beings and animals are even plant kingdom of you are the types of basic research. It is also known as pure or fundamental Research where the primary objective is to increase the knowledge rather than invent or create something.
These researches are not expected to produce results of immediate value but they are to the knowledge of human beings. Since no research is run without investing time and cost this also requires equally if not more investment of cost and time. Due to its low return on investment very few researchers all investors will prefer to go out with basic research.
2) Problem-oriented research
This type of research is done by an Apex body of an industry in order to find out solutions for the existing problems faced by the company. Example UNICEF conduct problem-oriented research in all the developing countries in order to understand the child labor numbers.
Is the name indicates problem-oriented research is the type of research specifically undertaken to know the nature of the problem and the path that is required to solve it. Here the term problem is not to be seen as just hurdle but it may be a decision making to them are or action needed to take as a particular situation in business.
The problem also could be an opportunity or difficulty. The nature of the problem could be something like the revenue generation of a particular company has decreased by a certain percentage. Finding the solution to this problem is also part of problem-oriented research.
The quality of the product, continuous availability of product, the effectiveness of advertising, all of these can be measured by problem-oriented research.
3) Applied Research
This type of research is exactly opposite to the basic research that is the primary purpose of this research is to solve a problem rather than to gain knowledge. The primary purpose of this research is to improve the existing human condition.
The focus of this research is on the analysis in solving of real life or social life problems. The research is generally conducted on a large scale and is considered to be very expensive to the extent that funding agency support is required like a public corporation, national governments, UNICEF or world bank etc.
The use of scientific problem or existing knowledge to solve the practical problem is the strategy used in applied research. The problems could be something like improving agricultural production or curing are finding a treatment for specific diseases, like curing the patient of HIV, cancer etc.
4) Problem-solving research
This type of research is not done by many entities but is done by the individual companies that face a particular problem. Marketing research and market research are the applied research which is used for problem-solving.
For example, a satisfaction survey conducted by Apple on the international level. This type of research will be considered as problem-solving research because the primary aim of this research is to uncover a solution for the present practical problem.
5) Quantitative research
This is the research that is based on numerical figures or on numbers that is why the name quantitative. The primary objective of this type of research used to quantify the quality and compare it with past records. Quantitative research refers to the systematic investigation of the measurable qualities according to Social sciences.
Development and employment of mathematical models, theories or hypothesis is the primary objective of quantitative research. The method of measurement for quantitative research is very crucial since it provides a basic connection between the mathematical expression of quantitative relationships and its empirical observations.
Branch of mathematics course statistics is most widely used in quantitative research and also the statistical methods are used in fields of commerce and economics.
6) Qualitative research
The research which is non-quantitative and type is called qualitative research. The collecting, analyzing and interpretation of data is qualitative research.
Qualitative research is considered more on the subjective front and uses different methods in order to collect and gain information like in-depth interviews and focus groups.
The qualitative term refers to the definitions meanings symbols characteristics and description and metaphors of things. This type of research is considered to be exploratory and open-ended since a small number of focus groups are conducted and or in-depth interviews are performed on a small number of people.
Qualitative Research is further divided into different types
1) Phenomenology :
The type of research in which the researcher tries to understand how the individuals experience a phenomenon. The example of this would be, an interview conducted to understand the present condition of Chernobyl tragedy.
2) Ethnography :
This is the type of research which attempts to describe the culture of a group of people. For example, the researcher may go and stay in African countries and understand the tribe culture of the indigenous people.
3) Case study :
This is collective or historical research about a particular topic or an incident in a detailed manner. The case of failed products or succeeded products may be studied by people. For example, how iPods from Apple finished Sony Walkman and Discman and changed the market and the industry.
4) Grounded theory :
It is based on grounded observations of data from which it was conceived. A variety of resources, like qualitative data, review records surveys, first-person observations etc.
5) Historical research :
This is the type of research where one is allowed to discuss past and present and allows reflection of events in the past in order to answer things about current problems and issues. For example, the nature of banking transactions taking place in the early 1900s.