Criticisms are of different types that occur every day in life. Let us directly delve into this article and see the different types of criticism :
Table of Contents
1) Logical Criticism :
When an objection is raised about an idea or action argument of situation that does not make sense in any way, that objection is Tum does assumption for implication and this criticism is known as logical criticism. Illogicality involves something like that which is being assumed or concluded in an improper way without having reasonable ground or something which is internally not consistent or contradictory which makes it impossible to maintain all the content at one time.
It may also involve something which has implications which are self-contradictory, or something which involves language which makes sense very superficially but does not follow logic when examined in a close manner. Logical criticism is based on basic cognitive principles which guide human behavior. Aristotle stated that basic building blocks of logic as the law of non-contradiction.
Logical criticism assumes that people follow the basic rules of logic and busy with “things just mean what they want them to mean.” Logical criticism presumes the people agree about some basic facts and assumptions of the situation and have at least some beliefs in common among themselves. It would not be possible to argue about logical criticism with someone who does not have any common assumptions or who is not willing to even consider the possibility that given assumption may be correct or incorrect.
More often than not logical arguments start like, ‘suppose that so and so is the case’ but if people do not consider ‘suppose’ or cannot imagine, then, it can be very difficult to initiate logical criticism.
2) Aesthetic Criticism :
This type of Criticism is considered to be a part of aesthetics which are concerned with judging the beauty and awareness style and fashion and other issues of human sentiment very critically. Human life has an aesthetic dimension in most parts of life meaning there will be a lot of potential for criticism. Architecture criticism is considered the highest form of aesthetic criticism because of the fact that architecture is a combination of three different fields which year arts science and Technology.
Architectures build a pleasing home environment for a living space which people live in every day almost permanently. An aesthetic critic would not say ‘it’s beautiful’ or ‘it’s ugly’ and instead aim to elaborate on the meaning of the work and the reason behind why something is beautiful or ugly. He would also elaborate on how the meaning of a design should be interpreted and would I get the week current stronger sides of a cultural object.
This is the reason why aesthetic critics have a variety of criteria which they use in their commentary. The criteria include things such as the reason behind the creative activity, the entire context of creative activity, the methods which are used to create the aesthetic effect, sentiments and values that the phenomenon communicates aesthetically, relation of an object with the criticized object and it’s themes, objects or genres, interaction and overall effect of both observer and observed, and finally the role of the criticism.
These are the types of criteria which tend to assume a deep knowledge. In this way, they can also attract attention to this that is issues that people you should attend to overlook, educate them about the aesthetic values and initiate debates of what kind of expressions are preferred by them aesthetically.
If there are logical pieces of evidence that criticism can prove aesthetic propositions. I just said the beauty is in the eye of the beholder but there are subjective elements which are usually not provable but Express a personal taste.
3) Positive Criticism :
This is the one that draws attention to a good aspect of something which is not being taken into consideration. Positive criticism may be overlooked by people who see the only the negative side of something that is why it becomes of paramount importance to highlight the positive side. Positive criticism may also be considered a type of self-defense. Positive criticism is also used as constructive feedback.
The purpose of Criticism is often constructive and is targeted to the person who would approve of the same. The primary aim of positive criticism is to provide a reference frame for better behavior and orientation. It helps people to act better on a situation and provides multiple choices for their behavior which in turn increases their behavioral freedom. Positive criticism can also be stated as an alternative which is positive.
It has a voice which says that the chosen option is not necessarily bad but there is an alternative option which is much better and preferred than the one available.
4) Factual Criticism :
When an objection what an argument is raised about an idea situation watches something wrong in it with the proof which is relevant to it is called as Factual criticism. It is often seen that when relevant facts are referred as wrong and these facts are said not to be true that is their truth has not been established and also the fact that is mentioned imply different stories which cannot be reconciled.
Factual criticism along with logical criticism is generally considered crucial to ensure consistency predictability and authenticity in the behavior of any manner. To make sense one has to have consistency and predictability of behavior without which there are disorientation and confusion and therefore it cannot guide to making effective choices.
Fact are the observations which are made with five senses and is itself has a problem because of the fact that they are never completely devoid of interpretation. There made using basic cognitive categorization and effect is concluded in the interaction between the observed and the observer. There are things are such as stubborn facts that are undeniable pieces of evidence because these are the evidence which is experienced by everyone and similar manner under similar conditions. For factual criticism, the reality is of importance.
If factual evidence regarded as a subjective interpretation then it becomes ineffective. These types of criticisms assume that people agree that there is a reality which is beyond personal experience.
5) Constructive Criticism :
This type of Criticism aims to show the purpose of something which is but achieved by a different approach. Making criticism is not necessarily incorrect and its reason is also respected but it is claimed that is a similar goal can be achieved by a different method. These criticisms are often considered as tips for improvement that is how could things be better and be done in a more acceptable way.
They tend to suggest how an identified problem can be solved in a better way and they are more likely to be accepted if they are clear specific and detailed. Constructive criticism along with negative criticism has many uses what are considered to be used together as a requirement. That is why people find fault with something is asked to find an option for making it correct.
Doing something means not doing something else and vice versa. That is why it is a conscious choice to do something and do it know something else and not both at the same time. That is why it is expected of people to know what is ruled in and what is ruled out.
6) Destructive Criticism :
The goal of destructive criticism is to destroy the criticized target by making destructive criticism. Example, you should close your business and look for a job. The target is to show that the point of view of the other person likes merit and has no validity in the eyes of any person. Destructive criticism is also regarded as an undeniable nuisance especially if it involves a personal attack on others.
Destructive Criticism as a destructive effect and not a positive effect which is why it is often criticized. Destructive criticism may be useful to save resources and lives in political and military contexts. An idea is not considered to be dangerous but an idea which is proposed in a certain context can be dangerous. When people and property are physically destroyed that is when ultimate destructive witticism occurs. The term destructive criticism also implies that the intensity or scope of Criticism is to the extent that it becomes destructive.
People tend to believe that criticism is to a level that it destroys things. Example when a debate goes on increasing and turns into an argument and gets out of control and everybody starts opposing everybody else. In this case, criticism is being overdone.
What started out as dialogue, has ended up with close and turned into destructive criticism. Destructive criticism from authorities like parents will cause psychological harm the juniors for children which will affect their self-esteem, behavioral conduct, social acceptance and they will grow up with poorer self-perceptions.
7) Negative Criticism :
When a perception is seen and voiced out as wrong, mistaken, objectionable or false it is termed as negative criticism. The objective of the criticism is to suggest disapproval or disagreement of something since it emphasizes the negative points of something. It is also seen as a personal attack against a person. Although the intention may be different it may be interpreted in that way.
Negative criticism may have a bad effect on people who take it seriously. People who insulted react badly to it. Much of it depends on the quantity of negative criticism that is transferred to the other person because some people can handle negative criticism up to a certain extent beyond which it is taken as an insult. The downside of negative criticism is that it shows and tells people what to do, rather than telling them what they should do what they are able to do with my sound disabling and not at all encouraging.
Finally, people may reply to negative criticism with “Okay. So what?” Yet negative criticism may be necessary sometimes to avoid people from taking a harmful path because people are afraid to negative security size then the current problem which is in hand may worsen. The positive side of negative criticism is that a person can understand his limitations and be realistic. It helps sometimes to say no to something.
These days negative criticism is seen as being negative and people who negatively criticize are seen as manipulative. This is the reason why people Express negative criticism by not paying attention or not saying anything about it.
8) Partial Criticism :
This criticism is seen as the objection to something which does not work in reality owing to some reasons. The focus of practical criticism is on useful effect when people say that might be fine in theory but in reality, it will not work. Alternatively, something may be seen with an experiment which is mention not to work in theory home but actually turns out that it works in practice and hence contradicts the theory and the theory may be adjusted.
Practical criticism is nothing but an experience which is obtained first hand which reveals the reason behind why an action is wrong and what are the conditions under which it may succeed. Often doubts and concerns are raised about the practicality and applicability of an idea when someone voices it out. It is seen that practical criticism was more effective when people are concerned with the practical nature of the problem.
However, people are concerned only with what things mean, then they may not care about the fact that whether things are practical or not. People tend to hold on to their beliefs even if they are not very practical because of the fact that they feel that those are necessary. Practical criticism tends to succeed if it is made on the experience because practical criticism without experience is simply talking without action.
9) Theoretical Criticism :
When the criticism is concerned with the meaning of ideas or which are based on practicality is called theoretical criticism. It is concerned with the relevance of a theory and its application to reality along with its validity, limitations and its purpose. The theory is criticized from the point of view of others or internally or in terms of experimental evidence or also its usefulness for modern implications to the action and human behavior.
Theoretical criticism is not simply whether a particular idea makes sense or not but it is about the fact that whether it makes sense and is consistent along with its theoretical framework. The usefulness of a theory can be determined by its help for others to guide through the activity or if it helps to make sense of things. The theory with great power is a theory which is able to account every single evidence not excluding a single one.
Effective outcomes can be predicted along with accurate results if the assumptions of the theory of understood and when applied. Theories usually criticize not being useful and do not apply to the situation. It is also predicted that things fail to explain in this theory. The theory which is simple is termed as the best theory and the one that becomes complicated fails to provide guidance because there is no clarity on anything in particular. Theories can also be judged as per their moral implications.
Theoretical criticism may also be of the ideas that do not go with each other for which produces an elaborate description and fails to explain everything. A theoretical critic will then attempt to address the situation by showing a conspiracy theory which requires changing some ideas for discarding the entire theory in favor of an interpretation which is more consistent.
10) Private and Public Criticism :
The criticism can be expressed privately or publicly. The most private criticism is only in the minds of the critic as well as the most obvious reason of not expressing a criticism is that the critic believes public knowledge of a certain criticism would be harmful either for him or for others. The first expression of Criticism is done in private to see the reaction to them after which it requires encouragement and convection to express that criticism publicly.
The main difference between private and public criticism is vague and there are various interpretations of absolutely public and absolutely private. Yet criticism is accessible publicly it remains unknown because it is available in rather an obscure place or because people avoid looking at it. Criticism may already be present before someone finds out and presents it publicly.
The degree of Criticism which is made private or public depends on the legal norms for expressing criticism. Therefore, the degree to which criticism may be accessible is influenced by moral considerations and the human or commercial interests which are at stake. Criticisms can also be expressed anonymously under a different name in which case The Identity of the criticizer remains unknown and if the criticism exists in public then the whereabouts of the criticizer remain private.
Criticism also travels faster through grapevine communications although they may be ignored because everybody knows what they are since the seniors already communicated the criticism informally.
11) Scientific Criticism :
The scientific criticism is not concerned with moral values but with quantitative values. The primary focus of scientific criticism is on whether an idea can be proven true or false what are the limits of weather application irrespective of whether people like them or not. For this reason, scientists use logic and relevant proof which is offered by experience as well as experimentation and pay attention to the purpose of the activity that is relevant.
Obviously, a scientist is also seen as more is being with moral biases but the aim of science is to ensure that doors models biases on do not prejudice scientific findings. If scientists ignored relevant evidence which pertains to a particular case owing to some personal bias then it could be criticized. Based on scientific grounds are specific morality scientists can criticize it but on scientific capacity the choose not to do so because the morality itself is objectionable and also because it cannot be reconfirmed with the facts and it involves valuations which are opposite to know the logical evidence.
Science is concerned more with the relationship of means and ends rather than the desirability of ends. The only question about scientific activity is to confirm whether the means that is chosen can produce a result or not and if it can then why or if it cannot then why not. That is why scientists aim to prove with proof that if one wants to achieve something then he must not do other things.
If one wants to achieve something or not will be a separate question altogether because telling people what they ought to do is not the concern of the scientific community. When scientists are criticized by other scientists then the criticism can be very technical or specialized to scientists only that is why it may not be very easy to understand unless one is familiar with the technical terms of science.
Certain ground rules are followed for scientific criticism but every branch has its own rules and formats for criticism since science is about the search for truth which is what is on the scientists are considered not to be scientific.
12) Moral Criticism :
This type of Criticism is concerned with the rights and wrongs of ethics are values and norms of people who uphold about what is good and what is bad or rights and wrongs of the conditions that are faced by other people. Morality is primarily concerned with what is good and bad. There are many forms of moral criticism like showing that actions which have taken place are incompatible or counterposing one set of values to another or even arguing that certain values are objectionable are certain values need to be adopted or rejected.
Moral criticism is based on the idea that people should be treated similarly in similar situations and the same norms should be applied to all the people in a similar situation. The exception proves that there exists a certain module which is an exception for some reason and such morality is assumed because human behavior would be unprecedented without it.
Modern legal systems are based on the idea that originates from to social norms which are often expressed in regions that “one should do to others as one is with oneself” and “not to do others the things that you would not like yourself to be done on you.” Consistent behavior is expected for survival and achievement in the long run in contrast to arbitrary behavior.
That is why people hold to the clash and how consistency should be interpreted and modern criticism ranges from whether there should be the moral rule for the interpretation of the meaning of moral rules and the nature of its practical applicability. This debate can be pursued formally or formally by various authorities of citizens.
13) Religious Criticism :
This type of Criticism is related to judging actions ideas related to the existence of God and whether they are good or bad for human beings. A religion would normally have Holy texts which serve as a guide to interpret the actions are inculcate the ideas and authentic them as good or bad. It is expected that people derived norms on how to develop in the word from these religious texts. However, the language barrier may present itself while integrating sacred texts which is why clarification on them be required.
Theologians often asked questions such as how do we know what God wants for human beings which are often tried to answer based on religious principles and laws and by divine inspiration by the route of prayer or meditation. Many religious authorities may criticize the behavior of people if it conflicts with the doctrine prescribed by the religious texts however the motive of religious criticism is important since if the criticism is offered in right spirit it can have a good effect rather than a negative effect.
Religious criticism is successful if the intention is clarified and if good and bad are separated clearly in such a way that people are convinced to follow the religion. On the other hand, religious criticism is very difficult because the spiritual beliefs of people are very personal and attached to spiritual matters or personal meanings which are unusual and difficult to interpret. It is not logical to confirm a shared framework for shared interpretation because it is a very personal matter and it also, for a similar reason, requires a great deal of respect to approach a spiritual issue.
14) Scholarly criticism :
This criticism is considered a scholar the only if it conforms to the standards prescribed by scholarly. A scholar’s academy critic often digs deep into the problems and goes through all the relevant evidence. Before they consider the certain thing as a problem, a scholarly critic becomes familiar with the background literature and ensures that he cannot be accused offensive and inconsistent reasoning and he ensures that his arguments are fact-based relevant and the purpose and the motive are clear.
It is often seen that the scholar documents ‘who said what and when’ so that all the sources of arguments are crystal clear and he tries to be as objective in fact based as humanly possible. This makes the argument strong and the criticism is difficult to refuse. Often scholarly criticisms are examined by others to find faults and suggest possible alternatives and in this way, they ensure to maintain the quality of criticism throughout. An undeniable proof of rationality which cannot be refused by anyone is provided by scholarly Criticism and it is accepted as definitive by most of the people.
It is very difficult to provide such spectacular proves all the time but if many bright minds work on the same issue together, then they can develop criticism which may be hard to argue with. Multiple resources are taken to substantiate a scholarly criticism which can require perseverance and patience from the scholar. The primary aim of the scholarly critic is to improve the understanding of an issue with the help of research, overcoming every prejudice about the particular issue. Scholarly criticism does not mean neutrality but the very fact that someone has developed a scholarly criticism means they’re taking a partisan position.
It is often seen that causes submit their own considerations to a public forum which evaluate the criticisms on pros and cons with the only aim to contribute to search for the truth and with the intent of understanding that criticism could be wrong. Scholarly criticism is the one which ensures that one has an attitude of being open to criticism.
It is debatable that what exactly is applicable according to the scholar is standards but participants from multiple academic disciplines usually operate with a decent amount of consensus as to what the standards are which in general terms are cheating, lying, misinformation etc. Great respect for truth and honesty is desired for scholarly criticism and the communication which is adopted should be acceptable by the scholarly community.
15) Revolutionary and Radical criticism :
Radical literally means to go to root, thus radical criticism means going back to the basics of the problem, on the other hand, revolutionary criticism aims to overthrow an existing idea and turn it upside down. Revolutionary criticisms are also used in ways which are previously unheard of and these criticisms are associated with youth or new generation for finding the identity amongst the older generation. Fundamental assumptions are usually targeted by radical critics to show the ultimate reason why are a certain thing is true or false.
The concern is to determine what is the basis of something and for this reason, a radical critic is never satisfied with them superficial ideas. Status quo is questioned by them and they pursue the train of thought to its ultimate limits by asking why for every question. They are not satisfied until there is a complete answer to their puzzle and these criticisms may also be revolutionary since the results may overthrow the existing ideas and replace it with new perspectives.
Revolutionary or radical criticism is often compared with political extremism but may not be the case every time since these types of Criticism main only proved to be exceedingly simple to prove that certain thing is true or false which is contradictory to the popular perception of people. What is usually seen as extreme since it falls outside the normal way of saying things and if radical critics succeed in their case, then their idea may be accepted and in long run, it becomes a normal and mainstream idea.
Many ideas that people hold now were considered radical revolutionary sometime back. And it took time to change these ideas and become accepted by everyone. The difference between normal and radical is a small one and has to do very less with the content of ideas than the fact that whether they are accepted or not. The radical critic may be regarded as an oddball in his days but later on, when the ideas are accepted, he will be regarded as a great thinker or even a genius.
This may not be the cause every time since radical critics try hard but fail to prove the root of the matter and thus, they may be forgotten and people remember them only as troublemakers and not revolutionaries. Some consider radical criticism to be a gamble since it may or may not justify. The other reason to consider it a gamble is it opens up an intense controversy which can go beyond radical critic to handle and also last for a long time.
This is the reason why people become agitated when radical critic exposes the problem or propose a radical solution to it. It requires an immense amount of courage since the associated backlash with it can be very hard to deal with. Scared radicals and sure that we can deal with the consequences of this Criticism.
16) Critical Criticism :
The criticism which is done for the sake of Criticism is called critical criticism. This type of Criticism was made popular by Karl Marx in the book, The Holy Family. To be critical is the highest positive value of a critic and it is also a way of life for that person. For motivational purposes, such a position is often criticized and people often feel that for being critical that should be a very good reason and being critical simply for the sake of being critical is not a valid reason.
Instead, It is seen that it can lead to cynicism with the destructive result and if everything is ended by criticism nothing may be left. If criticism destroys everything then there may not be left any value for it. People are not satisfied with what is not possible and instead, they would like to know what can be possible. It is crucial to point out that things are not correct even if you cannot know how to make the correction.
Critical critics ensure that it is necessary to be on guard constantly and to entertain no nonsense. Without criticism, things are not properly proportioned. The matter of the fact remains that things will not go simply because they are criticized. Therefore, people have to ensure that things which are correct and things which are wrong are properly distinguished, but on the other hand, if the whole thing turned out to be good, or positive then there may not be any need for critical criticism and it will be considered as meaningless in this case.
That is why the means used by the critics may not proceed to the ends and at times, people have to choose to be silent and take action. It is often observed that critical criticism contains a limitation which may require to go beyond or may require getting rid of it.
17) Conservative Criticism :
This type of Criticism is concerned with staying confirm to a principle or a rule with the past. It is often said that conservative critics consider that everything in the world has its rightful place and people are entitled to know what that place is such that is better for their own good. It is also said that people need to stay in their own place since they belong to that place and people should never try to leave that place since it will attract trouble in their lives.
A lot of knowledge is required of to know where a particular thing belongs and requires a lot of knowledge about the working of things and that is why conservative criticism may not be narrow-minded as the popular opinion is. The most common types of conservative criticism are that when someone breaks a rule or changes a tradition.
They depend more on the methods of the past rather than expecting more from the future since future is more often than not unreliable and past is more reliable since it has more testing methods which should be applied even in the future. It is often seen that conservative critics are elder people rather than the younger generation who consider that they have seen everything and done it all.
That is the reason why they are called conservatives. Conservative criticism is not necessary to do anything with the right or left wing because left wing people are often considered as conservative in nature while on the other hand right wing people are called radical. In this particular incidence, the difference between conservative and radical has to do with the belief to change something genuinely. Radicals often believe that such a change is desirable and necessary and also that it can be achieved. The criticism is often that there is no time for enough change.
Conservative critics are often considered skeptical to change because they feel that changes Just another form of something that I already experienced or something that already exists. The conservative criticism in a negative way can change people. Coming back to the older traditions and the ways of the past are the only principle that conservatives are concerned with. Conservative critics are of the opinion that whatever change may occur, it is just another form and it is subtle because it cannot alter the basic existence of humans.
The details may change but everything remains the same in essence the way it has always been. They believe in process and continuity and are resistant to change since they believe that it is not possible to change the existence of humans on a drastic scale whatever the form of appearance change has. That is why conservative critics often say that when people say they are doing something new, they are simply being superficial. They think that innovative things are not at all innovative and they are simply different forms of things that have been done previously.
Living in the moment is not for a conservative critic but living in terms of years or centuries is for him. Stability is the ultimate aim of conservative criticism so that things stay where they are and things are orderly and peaceful. Conservative criticism can be efficient and also effective if things are kept the way they are all things are changed to the traditional ways. If the changes are unavoidable and inevitable conservative criticism will not effective.
18) Speculative Criticism :
The type of criticism which is based on speculation or things that which may be caused or what cause is known as speculative criticism. When enough evidence is not there that is when speculative criticism takes place. When things are not certain fixed or definite and when multiple possibilities are present at the same time that is meant speculative criticisms take place. People have to deal with uncertainties most of the times in their lives and they have to interpret things without knowing the details and that is when speculative thoughts occur in mind. Speculative criticism takes place when things are assumed in a particular manner then the consequences would be so and so.
It will be uncertain whether the interference that is made on the strength of a solution is valid or not. Because of its non-availability or absence of evidence speculative criticism is often criticized. Speculative criticism please a crucial role because similar information can be read in a different way by different people. Information when open to interpretation is termed as speculative Criticism since it has different meanings.
It is often established what particular information could mean by the means of speculative criticism. For example, archaeologists speculate and have different hunches about a particular civilization when they find some old remains. When they come to a common consensus about particular speculation, that is when a fact is formed.
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