The meaning of the term journalism is an activity or a profession to collect information and write for newspapers, magazines, websites or to broadcast it through various media such as television, radio or live streaming. Journalism explains the events which impact people’s lives in different ways and shared with people in various forms and styles.
Every journalistic type uses a different method and writes for a different type of people or audience. Journalism is not only categorized on the basis of its style and form, but it also depends on how it is regulated. In some countries, government intervenes in the way journalism works and in other news media are independent identities controlled by private organizations.
Therefore, every country has different rules and regulations or laws for handling freedom of speech and defamation cases. Not very long back, print media was the major news media and most people used to rely on the newspaper to get information about the happenings in local places as well as international places, but with the advancement of technology ways to deliver news has developed and various new journalistic methods have been introduced. In this article, you will learn about the traditional as well as modern journalisms.
1) Agricultural journalism :
Agricultural journalism is a modern type of journalism and has been growing recently for past few decades. The job of an agricultural journalist is to provide news related to the agriculture land, problems and issues of farmers of a country, and modern agricultural methods and techniques.
This type of journalism has recently become popular among youngsters because many colleges are offering courses for agricultural journalism and demand for this course is increasing by many industries.
There are multiple fields like environmental welfare, food industry, wine industry, and conservation bodies, on which news can be made and shared. In many nations, there are separate news channels and newspapers designated to share information related to agriculture.
2) Arts journalism :
This field is for the art lover people. There are various forms of arts such as dance, music, literature, films, drama, painting, poetry, and many more. The job of an arts journalist is to analyze the trend of the art world and share news related to it with the audience. Arts journalism is sought-after by a great number of audience. Therefore, many news agencies hire separate people to gather news about each field of arts.
3) Business journalism :
Business journalism is about collecting news about business around the globe. A business journalist has to collect news about the launch of new products in the market, unions, and procurement of companies, the performance of companies, economic ups, and downs etc.
Reporting news about business requires great skills because it is one of the most difficult types of journalism. Therefore, business journalists have to prepare well-searched analytical reports to produce accurate news about the business world. Besides this, a business journalist can also produce news by exposing business-related scandals and making common people aware of it.
4) Celebrity journalism :
The word paparazzi has become quite popular in the past few years. This term is specially given to celebrity journalists who work to gather news about celebrities like movie stars, singers, musician and business tycoons.
Celebrity journalism is all about providing news about the professional and personal lives of celebrities. It also includes interviewing celebrities and reporting gossips. A large segment of journalistic audience entertains themselves by reading or watching news about the celebrities.
5) Civic Journalism :
This field produces news by making the use of the democratic right of people i.e. freedom of speech. A civic journalist interviews common people and ask about their problems, issues or opinions. The information collected in this way is used to make news stories and presented to the whole world. A civic journalist has to do a lot of research and be present amongst people to make news stories.
6) Community journalism :
This field produces news about a certain community, town, vicinity, or area. Therefore, it is also called local journalism by laymen. Community news is not taken seriously by literate readers; however, it has great readership among the elderly and not very educated population. As a matter of fact, community news affects people closer than the world or national news. Stories, jokes, obituary news, opinion articles shared by people are also part of this type of journalism.
7) Crime journalism :
This field of journalism has always been popular since the beginning of journalism. People are always curious to know about the crimes taking place nationally or internationally. They always want to know what exactly happened and seek accurate details about the criminal cases. people find such news amusing and entertaining.
However, it requires a lot of efforts and investigation by the end of crime journalist to draw together exact information. The crime news is mostly based on violence, revenge, greed, corruption, drugs etc. To become an efficient crime journalist, a journalist must have solid contacts to get hands on all important event.
8) Cultural journalism :
The world is full of different cultures and religions. People are not aware of the different cultures and religions of various countries, because of this reason, cultural journalism came into the picture. The job of a cultural journalist is to explore the different cultures of the world and report about various customs, festivals, history, languages, and art of those cultures.
This field of journalism is fun to work for and provide an opportunity to journalist to travel and live in various parts of the world. However, it is not only fun but requires great skills and constant learning to excel in this field. For instance, the journalist has to learn the local language to get information about various cultures.
9) Cyberjournalism :
This field of journalism is booming at a fast pace. It came into existence soon after the invention of the internet. Cyberjournalism is also called online journalism. A cyber journalist reports about the happening on the cyberspace, which includes, cybercrimes, online events etc. This type of journalism has become a popular career choice of many youngsters because of its interesting work style.
10) Weather journalism :
The work of this type of journalism is self-explanatory by its name. This is one of the oldest types of journalism and is usually sidetracked by the people. However, there is still a small segment of the population such as farmers, who relies on the weather forecast for their day-to-day activities.
11) Sports journalism :
This type of journalism is related to covering a sports event, sports series or a sports person. This field of journalism is fun to work for, with additional benefits like traveling to different countries, chance to watch live-sports events and opportunities to meet sportsperson. Working in this field require skills like knowledge about the rules of the game, omnipresence, good communication skills etc.
12) Political journalism :
This type of journalism is one of the serious types of journalism. This field can be divided into three categories such as local political news, national political news, and international political news.
A political journalist has to carefully study political events (like elections), election campaigns, bodies, figures and report news in an unbiased manner. Being is a political journalist is a very difficult and risky job because it can make you bad in the eyes of common people and politician because of your opinionated news.
13) Scientific journalism :
The job of a scientific journalist is to report science-related news to the common people. To work in this field requires a good understanding of the field and effective writing skills. He/she has to break down the news in simple language, so that laymen can understand, without compromising with the meticulousness.
Scientific journalistic writers write for science journals, science subscriptions, and informative features. The number of readers of scientific journalism is increasing, making the rise in the number of scientific journalists.
14) Lifestyle journalism :
In recent years, the interest of people has increased in reading about lifestyle. Lifestyle journalism includes music, leisure, entertainment, gardening, cooking, home, shopping, yoga and exercises, and healthy eating habits. This section provides readers with tips to lead a better and healthy lifestyle.
15) Education journalism :
The job of an education journalist is to report various events and developments in the field of education. The reports created by journalist assist policymakers to make education policies accordingly. The main focus of education journalism is to spread awareness about education and inspire people to go for higher education. The audience of education journalism is mostly students, teachers, and researchers.
16) Defense journalism :
This field provides information about what is happening in or with the military forces (such as Army, Air force, and Navy) of a country. It provides news about the latest equipment, events, technology of various military forces. Reports created by defense journalist make people aware about the national defense and also inculcate patriotism in the citizens.
17) Fashion journalism :
There is a segment of the population that sleep with a copy of Vogue magazine under their pillow. Magazines like Vogue, Elle, W, L’Officiel, Jalouse are elite magazines of the fashion world. These magazines provide information about the latest trend in the fashion market. They also include photos of models, interviews of fashion models and highlights of the latest fashion shows. Besides, magazines fashion journalist can also work in fashion channels, websites, YouTube channels etc.
18) Environmental journalism :
An environmental journalist writes about the environment related issues and writes articles to make people aware of the protection and conservation of it. It also includes environmental events, policies held by environmental organizations for various causes. Environmental crises can be covered by an environment journalist.
19) Investigative journalism :
The job of an investigative journalist is to find the facts and studying the cases which require a lot of efforts. Investigative journalism is one of the difficult types of journalism because sometimes a case can take months to years to find information about.
Investigative journalists expose scandals and make headlines. Sometimes a story is published as the facts are being found in daily newspapers. To become an investigative journalist, one should have knowledge, persistence, and patience
20) Comic/ Graphic journalism :
This is an evolving and interesting branch of journalism. Comic and graphic journalism has been an integral part of print media, but it has recently become part of cyber journalism. Cartoons and comic characters are used to depict real-life instances from recent news articles.
This type of journalism is appealing and grabs the attention of the audience easily. This style of journalism is part of newspapers, monthly subscriptions, and news websites.
21) Tabloid journalism :
Tabloids are favorite of many readers, who seek entertainment from the print media. Tabloids are hit with many untrustworthy newspapers and websites. A tabloid journalist writes about the information from interviews of celebrities, statements made by them, release of a movie, latest technologies, newly released books etc. tabloid journalism is also famous by the name of “yellow journalism”. News in tabloids is highly-embellished and unreliable.