Assessment is defined as a proper collection, interpretation and use of information in regards to learning. It gives the teacher a better awareness about the knowledge of peoples and their understanding and what are learning experiences are also about their skills and personal characters and capabilities.
The assessment should be in sync and supportive of learning, it should be and should be valid in nature, the assessment should be proper and manageable, it should support the judgment of a teacher and lastly, it should support accountability.
10 Types of Assessment :
1) Summative Assessment
Summative comes from the word summary. The summative assessment arrives at the very end of the learning sequence and is used to record the students overall achievement at the end of learning. The primary objective summative assessment is to measure a student’s achievement post instructions or learnings.
Examples of summative assessment II midterms and final papers and examinations which give overall knowledge test of the student at the end of the learning. The summative assessment gives an insight into an overall scenario of the understanding of the student regarding particular learning or a topic. Summative assessment helps to answer the questions like what happened and what went wrong at the end of the learning.
The United States uses summative assessment all over their educational institutes. Summative assessments have more weight compared to formative assessments. Questionnaire service interviews testing’s and projects are few of the methods used to measure Summative assessment.
2) Formative Assessment
Formative assessment includes a variety of formal and informal assessment procedures which are used by teachers in the classroom so that they can modify the teaching an improve the student’s attention retention and his learning activity.
Formative assessment survey geyser in throughout the learning process and usually determined the performance of the student during the learning, unlike summative assessment which determines the performance at the end of the learning.
The primary objective of formative assessments is to involve the attention of the students and help them achieve their goals. It is performed in the classroom and determines the strengths and weaknesses of students. The routine question during the teaching of a lesson is an example of formative assessment.
Following are the characteristics of formative assessment
- Formative assessment is positive in its intention such that it is directed towards promoting learning and hence it is an integral part of teaching.
- It helps in addressing individual or group deficiencies by identifying it.
3) Evaluative assessment
This is concerned only with evaluating assessment. The overall idea is to evaluate the assessment in the school or in the system or in the department. Evaluation of candidates helps in assessing and judging whether the candidates are capable enough for the learning program. Evaluative assessment is done only with the aim of evaluating and grading the candidates.
4) Diagnostic Assessment
When the objective is to identify individual strengths and areas of improvement diagnostic assessment is the one that is used. It helps to inform next steps in the assessment bike including the strengths and weaknesses areas of improvement and other characteristics. Unlike Evaluative assessment, diagnostic assessment does not aim to grade the candidates but rather it helps in diagnosing the issue after which the teacher can take steps to address it.
5) Norm-referenced tests (NRT)
Robert Glaser coined the term Norm-Referenced Test.
Norm-referenced tests commonly known as NRT tests is used to assess or evaluate with the aim of determining the position of the tested individual against a predefined group on the traits being measured. The term normative assessment means the process of comparing one test taker to his seniors or peers.
The primary objective behind this test is to determine whether the test taker has performed better or worse than the other test takers which in turn determines whether the test taker knows more or less than the other test takers. Comparison by benchmarking is the method used in NRT.
The primary advantages that this kind of test can provide information about an individual vis-a-vis the reference group while disadvantage includes the reference group may not represent the current population of interest since most of the norms are misleading and therefore do not stay over a period of time. This test also does not ensure if the test is valid in itself. Norms do not mean standards which is another disadvantage of this test.
6) Performance-based assessments
This is also known as education assessment in which the skills, attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs of the student are checked to improve the standard of learning. The assessment year used at times done with the test but not only confirm to tests and it can extend to class or workshop or real-world applications of knowledge used by the student.
It is further divided into few subtypes such as
- Initial and diagnostic assessment
- Objective and subjective assessment
- Referenced and norm-referenced Assessment
- Informal and formal assessment
- Internal and external assessment
Examples would include multiple choice questions approach and answers as a post to the traditional responses which are normally done in writing a report.
7) Selective response assessment
This refers to the objective assessments including multiple choice true or false and matching questions. It is a very selective effective and efficient method to measure the knowledge of students and is also the most common method of assessment for students in the classroom.
Selective response assessment determines the exact amount of knowledge that the student has and also provides an insight into the skills the student has acquired over the time of learning.
8) Authentic assessment
Intellectual assessments that are worthwhile significant and substantial are measured by authentic assessment. In contrast, to standardize tests authentic assessment provides deep insights about the student.
It focuses to enable the skills of students to demonstrate their capabilities and competencies in a more authentic setting. Like the performance of a particular skill or demonstrating a particular form of knowledge assimilation and role plays or strategic and selecting items. Authentic assessment helps to determine and develop the problem-solving skills that are required out of school. Case studies are one of the common examples of authentic assessment.
9) Criterion-referenced tests
This kind of assessment determines the performance of student against a fixed set of pre-determined and agreed upon criteria or the learning of students. Unlike norm-referenced test here without reference is made against a particular criterion other than a benchmark or a human being or another student.
While criterion-referenced assessment will provide whether or not the answer is correct the norm-referenced assessment will provide information on whether the answer is better than student number 1 is worse than student number 3.
The comparison here is not against a person or fellow competitor is what is the biggest advantage of criterion-referenced assessment over norm-referenced assessment. While the earlier assessment provides the exact running status of student the latter one provides the running status of a student with respect or in comparison to others.
10) Written and Oral Assessment
These include projects, term papers, exam papers, essays etc. The primary objective behind the written assessment is to determine the knowledge and understanding of the student. Written assessments are performed under the supervision of the teacher and the questions are given on the assessment day with limited time to answer the questions.
Written assessments are one of the most popular methods in Summative Assessment. Oral assessments, on the other hand, involve the evaluation of the candidates orally. They are evaluated for the knowledge with their verbal answers. Questions can be elaborative or objective or a combination of both.