Job analysis is defined as a process that garners and later analyzes the collected data and information about the context and requirements of a job. This is an important tool as it helps in the placement of jobs as per the necessary demand.
Meaning of job analysis
Job analysis is a systematic approach where you have to undertake a detailed study to learn about the intricacies of the job requirement to optimize it fully. Job analysis is conducted by job analysts who are specially trained for it.
The process of job analysis includes determining the nature of the job and the numerous roles, duties, and responsibilities that come with it along with the skill and qualification that an employee needs to perform that specific job at an optimal level.
It helps to understand the tasks which are important and how they should be conducted.
12 Objectives of job analysis
The objectives of job analysis are as follows-
- Selecting the best possible candidate for the job after matching the specifications of a job to the qualifications of a particular employee
- Collecting and recording of information pertaining to a specific job
- Using the recorded data to determine the skills and knowledge that are needed for that particular job
- Setting a standard procedure to determine the worth of a specific job
- Fixing bonus plans and incentives
- Checking the accuracy of the related job information
- Determining the best method of performing a specific job
- Updating the gathered information at regular intervals
- Improving job satisfaction of employees
- Finding out the best training methods for the employees
- Developing systems pertaining to performance measurement
- Eliminating inequalities in wages
Advantages of job analysis
The advantages of job analysis are as follows
1. Clear concept
Job analysis helps the employee to get a clear picture of his role and responsibility in the job. As his concept is clear, he is able to concentrate fully and adapt as per the requirements
2. Initial information
Job analysis gives the employee all the relevant information pertaining to his job to make his role smooth. The employee has now a good idea about his role as well as the risks on the job.
3. Making changes
Job analysis helps the employee to know about his job inside out. He has a better understanding of the changes that need to be done so as to gain optimal benefits
4. Fixing rates for the job
Job analysis helps the management to fix the appropriate rate for particular jobs as per the characteristics and requirements needed for that position.
5. Less scope for bias
Job analysis establishes the rates for the position after evaluating the job thoroughly. The scope for favoring certain employees and becoming bias is less because it is the job that has been rated and not the employee.
6. Helps in the appraisal process
One of the most important benefits of job analysis is that it is a great process that comes in handy during appraisal and performance analysis. The information helps the manager in coming to term with ability gaps so that he can place the right fit in the slot.
7. Filling the position with the right candidate
The most important part of job analysis is to fill the vacancy with the right candidate. Once the analysis gives the management a clear picture of the skills and know-how required for that specific position, it becomes easier to find a fellow who is the most competent of the lot for that position
8. Promotions and transfers
The job analysis helps the manager in making transfers as per the requirements of the job by forwarding the name of the right candidate who has the skills to do fill that position. Similarly, promotions are allotted to employees based on their evaluation by job analysts.
9. Determining the compensation package
It is the job analyst who with the help of analysis offers information to the manager that proves a blessing in determining the compensation package of the employee.
10. Health and safety
Job analysis helps in determining the risks attached to the job and offers information to maintain the safety and health of the employees in an organization
11. Assists in training and development programs
Training is given in those areas where the analysts find necessary for the overall growth of the company; It is the job analysis who decides when to offer the training and to whom.
It also is responsible for finding the most suitable trainer and the type of training needed for the job.
12. Organizational structure
It is the job analysis that helps to make changes in the organizational structure of a company by deleting or adding required duties from particular positions.
Disadvantages of job analysis
The disadvantages of job analysis are as follows-
1. Is subjective
It is a challenge or the job analyst to keep aside the feeling of business while evaluating the gathered information. In some cases, the analysts let their personal likes and dislike interfere with their work
2. Unqualified analyst
It is necessary to hire a trained job analyst for job analysis. Sometimes organizations hire unqualified analysts that manage to botch the process
3. Requires lots of effort
Job analysis is a procedure that needs continuous human involvement and requires lots of effort because collecting information and analyzing them is a tedious job
4. Time-consuming process
The job analysis is a time-consuming process as it requires lots of time to garner, record and analyze the required information
5. Small source
In most cases, the source for collecting information is small, and thus it puts a damper on the data collection
6. Difficult to estimate mental abilities
It is impossible to get a fair idea about the mental abilities like endurance, aptitude, intellect, and characteristics of a probable employee at whom you are looking for a specific job.
Steps involved in job analysis
Job analysis is a procedure of collecting important information in relation to a specific job position, and the steps that should be taken to do so are as possible-
1. Collecting the information
The first step involved in the process of job analysis is collecting the information that will be needed while analyzing a particular position. Information can be collected via questionnaire, observation, interviews, and so on.
2. Review the background information
The second step involved in job analysis is reviewing the information that you have collected for job assessment.
3. Selecting a representative job
Analyzing every single job position is a time-consuming as well as a costly process. Hence it becomes necessary to pick up a position that will act as a sample representative. The analyst analyzes this position and makes it a set standard for other similar positions
4. Collection of data
The next step is obtaining and collecting the data for a selected job, for instance, working conditions, job activities, ability and required behavior of the potential employee.
5. Developing a job description
This step involves developing a job description schedule with the help of the information and data that an analyst has already collected. This is a written statement that puts the onus on the location and duties of a job along with the estimated risk in that position.
6. Developing job specification
The last step in job analysis is developing job specification. A specification statement is created in a detailed manner that highlights the minimum requirement of each position.
It also focuses on the necessary background, knowledge, personal traits, and the skills needed to perform that job.
4. Methods of job analysis
The most common methods of job analysis are as follows-
1. Interview method
In this method of job analyzing every employee in a company is interviewed. The information gathered helps the organization in understanding the insecurities, problems, and uncertainties, which an employee is facing in a job. It is now possible to minimize errors.
2. Questionnaire method –
In the questionnaire method of job analysis, the employees are asked to fill a set questionnaire. This helps to gather data that will help in making necessary changes for specific job positions.
3. Observation method
Observation method is considered one of the most popular methods of job analysis. The analyst observes the employee and makes a note of the tasks that are undertaken as well as those that have not been performed.
As every analyst has a different viewpoint and measurement tactics, the analysis is also prone to personal likes, dislikes, and bias of the analyst.
4. Log records
One of the most important data for management is the log record book maintained by the employee. It is extensive in nature as it gives a detailed account of their daily activities along with information about the previous job profile and educational qualification and thus offers a fair idea about their personality and the duties attached with their position.
It becomes easy to understand the core competency level of an employee.