Job design revolves around practices of organizing a set of tasks or a job role.
It talks about how employees or workers go about their professional lives, plus it includes all the factors that might affect their work.
Job design helps to run the organization’s functions more efficiently and swiftly. Job design comprises of a set of tasks laid by the employer for the employees.
The tasks included in the job design are all responsibilities and work that an employee has to do. It might include-
- Tasks that are completed
- Ways through which tasks are completed
- Number of tasks that are completed
- The order in which tasks are completed
If you have confusion in understanding what job design is and to do it effectively, then this post will unravel the mystery for you here and now.
What is Job Design?
Job design is defined as the detailed layout of a concerned job offered in an organization. Nearly every organization or company implements job design in their work.
It is a group of tasks that are essential for the organization. It has all the respective tasks and duties. It further follows a concrete set of rules, like job analysis. This is a more critical aspect of job design.
It is also an ongoing process that adapts and makes adjustments as per the change in the conditions and tasks at the workplace.
Job analysis is done before preparing the respective job designs. It helps the organization to curate the next set of duties and tasks for the employees.
The main aim of job design is outlining the various aspects of the job given by the employer to employees. Further, a job design organizes the various work and tasks into one form and presents it to the employees for a better understanding of their roles.
Different Services Served by Job Design Proceedings
- Deciding working hours
- Channelizing job rotation
- Managing job enlargement
- Deciding work breaks
- Managing task/machine pacing
There are various factors involved in the preparation of job design. These factors form the core of the job design and help in forming its framework of it. These things include a good job design to foster more learning grounds in organizations.
The employees get to learn various things through detailed job design. Let us have a look upon the key characteristics of adeptly designed job-
Characteristics of a Good Job Design
When a job is dexterously designed, it plays a pivotal role in
- Enabling a variety of ‘good’ body positions
- Comprising moderate strength requirements
- Needing a moderate amount of mental activities
- Encouraging feeling of achievement and self-esteem
- Paying heed upon the muscular and mental energy of employees
- Giving a sense of contribution to the employees
- Including training to let employees know tasks, they are supposed to do
- Offering effective work-rest schedule
- Offering a balance in static and dynamic work
- Giving feedback to the employees
Now, after going through all the features of good job design, let us now have a look upon the problems that can be automatically solved by a well-designed job-
Problems that a Good Job Design Might Solve
- Issues related to limited control over the work
- Overloading or underloading of the work
- Isolation, repetitiveness, and shiftwork related problems
- Problems associated with excessive working hours
- Shallow or inefficient understanding of the whole job process
- Issues related to delays in the filling of different vacant positions
After understanding some of the key peculiarities of good job design, let us have a look upon the principles upon which a well-designed job will be based-
Main Principles of a Good Job Design
Certain job design principles drive their design and structure. These principles are well claimed for their versatility and useful framework.
Let us look into the main principles of good job design.
1. Variety principle of good job design
A more significant variety factor in job profile makes way for better and numerous job roles.
The job seeker or employee gets insight into their job and makes it worth working. The less variable job design is less favorable to the job seeker and the organization itself.
The variety factor sets an environment for challenges and competition in a company.
Preparing a job design with something new and fresh is preferable to all employees. The primary purpose of including variety in job design is to create an enjoyable work environment. The employees get to do something out of the box.
2. Responsibility principle of a well-designed job
It is one of the vital factors of good job design.
All individuals of an organization need to feel their responsibility towards the company and their roles.
They should perform their job roles efficiently either individually or as a part of the team. The job design should mention their roles and responsibilities to perform well in their expertise area.
The employees can see their personal and the company’s roles very well with the help of job design. It all occurs because of their actions.
A good job design assigns these responsibilities very clearly and soundly. In this way, the supervisor also can hold employees accountable for the long term.
3. Autonomy principle of good job design
Autonomy here means that the employees get to understand their roles according to their job parameters.
They can customize their roles of responsibility according to their job profiles. Autonomy goes along with the responsibility factor. The employees get to regulate their roles with their job profile parameters.
The job holder gets to make some of the decisions for him or her under this principle.
They get more exposure and confidence through this principle. The decisions made by job holders are convenient and right according to their job profiles.
4. Task identity principle of good job design
Good job design has a distinct start and end for a particular task.
The job holders find it more preferable when the task comes with a specific time frame. They do the task more enthusiastically, with more passion. The work output is desirable for the organization and its people.
Employees identify their tasks more efficiently with good job design.
5. Feedback principle of adeptly-designed jobs
This principle revolves around the benefits of sharing information about how an employee is working.
Feedbacks play an essential role in motivating and guiding the employees more effectively. Line managers are supposed to share genuine feedbacks for establishing a relationship with employees or workers.
The use of one-on-one meetings for discussing work objectives can be one example of such a relationship. The inclusion of feedbacks in job design is considered highly effective in informing and empowering employees to channelize growth.
6. Participation principle of good job-design
Including employees to be an integral part of decision making is another important principle of good job design.
Some employees or workers like to participate in the decision making processes that directly affect their work. Even experienced workers or employees always expect that they should also be asked to contribute, as their experiences are valuable assets for the company.
For including this, managers can use specialist subject discussions, institutional meetings sorts of practices.
7. Recognition and support principle of well-designed job
Employees enjoy working at jobs that also give importance to them.
Good job design channelizes self-respect in the workers by incorporating strategies for the acceptance and recognition of the employees by their managers, supervisors, and owners.
Getting recognition for doing good work is an essential factor for motivating employees to work harder and better next time. Also, offering support wherever needed and channelizing teamwork culture is integral to well-designed jobs.
It weakens the feeling of isolation and depression from the workforce and plays a crucial role in optimizing employee motivation, engagement, and retention.
8. Working environment principle of good Job Design
Well designed jobs always offer safe and healthy working environments for the workers.
The workplace must be impartial, non-discriminatory, and all-inclusive. It should also be free from different sorts of harassment and safety hazards.
A good working environment is beneficial in empowering the workforce to work with full enthusiasm without any negativities. A proper mechanism should always be incorporated for handling any discrepancies or other issues at the workplace.
Common Job Design Practices
1. Work Design or Job Engineering
It lets employees gauge the interlining amongst work methods, their layouts, and handling procedures, and human and machine interaction.
2. Job Rotation
It involves the movement of employees from one task to another, plus the distribution of group tasks among different employees is also done in this.
It lets employees have more independence, responsibility, and accountability while learning new jobs. It also ensures more participation.
4. Job Enlargement
It changes the jobs for the inclusion of more and different tasks, plus is also does the addition of interests to the work. However, it might or might not give more responsibilities to the employees.
Advantages of Job Design
The whole process of job design is to make it more accessible to all the jobholders. It is all aimed to complete the work environment more healthy and productive. All job holders and organization gets benefits from the job design.
Some of the critical job design advantages are as follows:
1. The employee gets the chance to input their roles.
A good job design enables all employees to put their efforts and input into the respective job profile. They get to give their feedback to the company’s roles. This all happens due to a structured job design made by the company.
2. Paves the way for employee training
Training is mandatory for any organization. A right job design emphasizes the training of the fellow job holders to make them ideal for the role. It contains good scope for their training and development.
3. Structured work and break hours
The job design has defined work and breaks hours for all jobholders. There is no chance of any confusion regarding the work and break hours of the organization. It is all mentioned in the job design. All hours are clearly defined as per the job profiles of jobholders.
4. Job design enables us to make adjustments according to the job profile.
Some job profiles require more human resources, and some don’t. The jobholders can adjust their job requirements according to their needs. This can work very efficiently for all jobholders as they can minimize and maximize their energy as per their requirements.
The job design process is continuous and evolving. The process depends on the organization’s needs, and all job holders get benefits from a structured job design.
This helps all job holders to maintain their energy throughout the job role.
Good job design is an essential part of any organization. It holds the foundation firmly and motivates for more development and betterment. The ultimate goal of job design is to reduce dissatisfaction and foster more job engagement in the workplace.
After understanding everything about a well-design job, what will be your definition of a good job design?