Research methodology revolves around a step-by-step method for garnering, analyzing, and processing the collected data. Everything here is according to the research design.
It is associated with the process that researchers systematically follow to design a study by ensuring validity and reliability while addressing the research goals. In the process, researchers decide what data to collect, from whom this data should be collected via sampling, how to collect it, and how to analyze that data.
Table of Contents
What is Research Methodology?
Research methodology signifies the different procedures, techniques for identification. And it was then processed, followed by analysis.
The methodology section in the research paper has pointed the readers with aspects. Like, a study’s thorough examination. How far the truth reaches, and how is the dependability score. It describes the initiation of the data and its analysis. That all depends on researchers how they can get it through until they catch the aim.
There is a topic of research methods, informal ones. Be it a dissertation, thesis, academic journal article, or any other. To find which method text is a proper one, search for those that have ‘what’ references and ‘why.’
On the best ones, a Practical explanation is what you find. At the same time, none of those poor methodologies have it.
What is Research Design?
Research Design is a structure aiming to provide an ideal framework for the study being conducted.
The most important decision to be made about research is the process or the methodology that the researcher wishes to employ. This design includes the processes that will be used to collect the information and other relevant decisions regarding the study’s conduction.
The research design contains the crux of the study. It has the methodology in the design, as in the questionnaire, survey, etc. Other forms of design to be used are interviews of the employees or participants in the study.
The research design can either be descriptive or objective, depending on the topic or the study’s hypothesis. Thus, the research design being deployed by the researcher becomes very important.
It ensures that the way forward in terms of data collection accuracy and the analysis of data is assured.
An in-detailed explanation of the design being used forms a crux of the researcher’s final paper as it gives the reader an insight into the whole process. It also sets the tone for the researcher to collect data with precision.
Types of Research Methodology
Make sure you check three things- qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method methodology.
Each of these is a different variation of the method. The only distinctive are either numbers or words or both.
1. Qualitative research
Qualitative research is more often used in experimental objectives. Your best example of this would be examining a person and then understanding them under a certain event or anything needful.
It is in the subjective form and has participants on the go. This is the reason why outcomes of point limit to what study and another context may not exemplify.
In contrast, qualitative research is a lot more in need of time.
2. Quantitative research
As the word ‘Quantity’ suggests, quantitative research tells about ratio, measurement. And an assessment with numerical data.
Quite the opposite of qualitative research, quantitative research is confirmatory. Testing assumptions that are not yet proved true comes under examples of quantitative. Another example is calculating the likes of engaging in crime. Or how stretched is the relationship with it.
Quantitative is easier to collect and needs less time to be over as software is available to carry it.
Because measuring is a part, this research methodology evaluates a better ‘scientific.’ But with some better-visualized answers.
3. Mixed-method methodology
The combination of qualitative and quantitative research serves as a mixed-method methodology. But with a better result.
Types of Sampling Design Approaches used in Research Methodology
Sampling design is about deciding where you shall collect your data from.
There are many sample options, but the two main sampling designs are probability sampling and non-probability sampling.
Probability sampling is one that makes use of a random sample from a group of participants. These participants are called the population in research.
A completely random sample is used to arrive at generalizable conclusions and applied uniformly to the entire population. Putting it simply, the researcher goes ahead with an expectation of getting a similar result from the entire population without indulging in the tiresome practice of collecting data from the entire group.
The non-probability sampling does not practice the usage of a random sample. It involves the researcher choosing a convenient sample instead.
The interviewer here surveys the population he has easy access to rather than picking a random sample due to a resource or mobility constraint. What is different here is that with non-probability sampling, the derived results cannot be generalized and considered applicable to the entire population.
Thus, with either of the ways of sampling, the result varies. The difference lies in the generalization principle of the data gathered. If an assumption can be made or not about the result’s universality depends on the method deployed.
Methods of Data Collection used in Research Methodology
Data collection is yet another essential aspect of research methodology. It depends on the researcher and the nature of the research question that which techniques have to be deployed. Exploratory research uses qualitative data collection techniques, while a few others might use quantitative techniques to gather data.
- Interviews (which can be unstructured, semi-structured, or structured)
- Focus groups and group interviews
- Surveys (online or physical surveys)
- Documents and records
- Case studies
The choice of which data collection method to use depends on your overall research aims and objectives and practicalities and resource constraints. For example, if your research is exploratory, qualitative methods such as interviews and focus groups would likely be a good fit.
Conversely, if your research aims to measure specific variables or test hypotheses, large-scale surveys that produce large volumes of numerical data would likely be a better fit.
Thus, the researcher needs to pick the data collection techniques with an intelligible argument defending the choice. This practice goes a long way in ensuring accuracy in data collection.
Main Groups of Research Methods in Social Science
Social Sciences include an array of research methods. All these can be classified systematically under two umbrella methodologies. The first one being the empirical-analytical approach or the one more qualitative. The second one being interpretative, dealing with a more qualitative exploration.
- The empirical-analytical group approaches the study of social sciences similarly that researchers study the natural sciences. This research focuses on objective knowledge, research questions that can be answered yes or no, and operational definitions of variables to be measured. The empirical-analytical group employs deductive reasoning that uses existing theory to formulating hypotheses that need to be tested. This approach is focused on explanation.
- The interpretative group of methods is focused on understanding phenomena in a comprehensive, holistic way. Interpretive methods focus on analytically disclosing the meaning-making practices of human subjects [the why, how, or by what means people do what they do] while showing how those practices arrange so that it can be used to generate observable outcomes. Interpretive methods allow you to recognize your connection to the phenomena under investigation. However, the interpretative group requires careful examination of variables because it focuses more on subjective knowledge.
What are the Techniques for Collecting Data?
Collecting data and passing through the analyzing stage vary for qualitative and quantitative. But whichever it is, the factor of objectives must be clear to opt for the effective one.
Qualitative, focused techniques include Qualitative content analysis—also, Narrative analysis, Discourse analysis, and Grounded theory.
While in quantitative, it’s descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics, here, refer to means, median modes, etc. And inferential statistics redeem to correlation, structural equation modeling, etc.
How to Choose the Correct Research Methodology?
Again, the aim must be clear and kept on priority, which is why you should first identify the research frame.
Exploratory, confirmatory, or both, distinguish which category it comes under—qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-method methodology.
The correct grab of any piece of research is by:
Taking into account what are the pending aims and objectives meant to meet out at the end.
What is Dissertation Coaching?
Dissertation, written in the past tense, asks for your used methods.
A dissertation enables the reader to judge whether the data is valid and trustworthy. How and what you did to meet whatever attainable is the influencing factor.
The proper ones of this include the type of research undergone. Also, how their collection and how it got analyzed in the way. And materials used with the justification of why only ‘this’ and not others.
How to Describe Methods in Quantitative Methods?
Know that other researchers must be able to repeat the study. As such, you must give adequate details for a good score.
You need to explain the concepts withheld how the measuring of variables took place. Sampling method. And research tools used with nifty.
1. Inputs about survey qualitative research
Do not skip the surveys, too, from when to wear, and how to administer it. Every description must be appealing and polished.
Survey Descriptions must include the following:
- Type of prepared questionnaire- MCQs, tick-cross, or Likert scale.
- The sampling method influences the way of participant selection.
- Equipment of implementation- phone, mail, internet, or person-to-person
- Duration of participants needful to respond
- Size of sample and response rate
- A copy of the survey sheet for the readers
2. Focus on your objectives and research questions
How the methods came about as suitability is one question, very important. And also, persuade anyone reading that it was the beat after all.
You need to make sure that the preferences happen to be prominent, though, with the dissertation back again.
3. Write to your audience
Your Details are to be accurate but with limits. You must know how long you should go and stop until when and not contain insignificant details.
Information that does not suit the field you have taken care to be through with a justification. But anything that’s marginalized to the field doesn’t ask for such deep focus.
Well, descriptive, clear are what you should install in the research.
Difficulties are a part. So, you can discuss what obstacles had appeared and how you gave it a pass. And tell about the unpredicted difficulty. Express the difficulty and cut-through of it.
Interviews (in qualitative research) deliver a more accurate report.
Also, they give out only qualitative. Yet, questionnaires help out in quantitative reports. But it also might not be the case in some situations.
Having any doubts about the right research methodology for your research paper? Feel free to ask us in the comment section below.
Liked this post? Check out the complete series on Market research