The ADDIE model of instructional design is referred to as a process to develop, create and plan an effective learning management system. It is used by instructional designers and training developers as an integral part of the blended, offline, and online learning environment and related courses.
The ADDIE model is an easy-to-use, generic and straightforward with a step-by-step procedure in the exact order. It can be used for any type of audience for example corporate training programs and teaching lessons.
The word ADDIE is an acronym for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
The ADDIE model of instructional design was invented in the year 1975 by Florida State University. At the onset, it was created as a development and instructional program to help in military training. Later it was transformed so that it could be used for all types of learning training.
What are the 5 Phases of the ADDIE Training Model?
ADDIE model has five phases Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation in chronological order where the first phase will follow the second and the third, and so on. The five phases of ADDIE model used by instructional designers are described below-
1. Analysis phase
The first phase of the ADDIE model is the analysis phase where the instructional designers will assess the current situation, analyze the training grounds, understand the purpose of this training procedure, and identify what has worked and what has not so that they can fill the knowledge gaps of the past.
In the analysis phase, identify the target audience, understand their training needs and determine the desired learning outcomes. Set realistic and measurable goals within the desired timeline.
The objective of the analysis phase used by instructional designers is to create the right framework to meet the learning goals of the audience.
This is the phase where Quality Analysis will help to identify learning objectives and goals. This is possible by asking yourself the following questions in the analysis phase
- Who is the target audience and what are they like?
- Do we have any information related to education, personal, or demographics about the target audience?
- What is the problem we are trying to fix?
- Why are we doing the training?
- Where is the training going to happen?
- What are the goals of the learning course?
- What is the objective of your training course?
- How are you going to meet the needs and requirements of the learner?
- What tools are best for delivering this information?
- What are the desired learning outcomes?
An important point to remember is that when the analysis phase is finished it should resemble the soul of the learning course. By this time the instructional designer is aware of his training needs and he can use all the relevant information to move towards the second phase.
2. Design Phase
The second stage of the ADDIE model is the Design phase where the information from the analysis phase is viewed to make informed decisions.
In this phase, an outline or the design of the learning program is created. An important thing to remember is that the design phase is time-intensive and the instructional designer should go through the phase in minute detail.
In the design phase, the instructional designers often start with an assessment and move backward for objective alignment. This phase includes various formats so decide beforehand the one you are going to use for example Mind Maps or a Storyboard or Bulleted outlines.
It is the design phase used by instructional designers that will decide specific learning objectives, instructional goals, skills and knowledge the learners need to retain, graphics, length of time for each lesson, and the best tools that should be used.
Consider the strategy and methodology of the training session by asking yourself the following questions in the design phase
- How much time does the learner have for the course?
- What are the tools available for course development?
- Will it include audio and visual elements?
- What is the order of the training?
- How much time will the learner need to complete the learning course?
- What are the resources available to complete the project?
- Does the learner have the skills to achieve the learning goal?
An important point to remember is that when the design phase is finished the instructional designers should have their framework, storyboard, and overall design complete.
3. Development Phase
The third stage of the ADDIE model instructional design is the development phase or the building phase of the learning course. In the design phase, the content idea is ready and in this development phase, the job of the instructional designers is to give life to those ideas.
The designer in the development phase can layout the content visually, create graphics, add multimedia, select colors and fonts, include graphs, and recording videos to boost learner engagement.
The development phase requires repeated testing to avoid any spelling errors, syntax, and grammatical errors in the offline course and bugs in navigation and modules in the online course.
Check whether the content, pacing, and length will be able to grab the learner’s attention. Set up a review to ensure that ADDIE is complete and is helping the learner to achieve the desired goals.
Ask the following questions to make sure the development phase is a smooth one
- Is the learner engaged?
- Can the framework grab the learner’s attention?
- Will the content have all the important information?
- Do you see teamwork amongst various learners?
- Are you able to create pre-decided materials?
- Are the learners contributing to maximum capacity?
An important point to remember is that when the development phase is finished the instructional designer’s eLearning course is also complete.
4. Implementation Phase
The designer has completed research, analysis, design, development, and testing, and now is the time to implement the course in the ADDIE process. The fourth stage of the ADDIE model instructional design is the implementation phase where the learners will take the course.
This phase includes exporting your file and uploading the course to an effective LMS software. Work with clients to understand the exact settings they need for tracking.
The implementation phase design includes both instructor-led learning and self-directed learning and the designer gets to know how the learners are responding to the process
After the course is distributed and users have started taking the course it is important to keep a close watch to see if any related problems are occurring or not.
Ask questions to create an effective implementation phase like
- Will the team be able to handle the implementation process independently or will they need guidance?
- Is the learner progressing as desired?
- Are you able to track the progress and results effectively?
- How are you going to deal with possible errors during testing?
- Is the backup tool ready in case of initial failure?
- What does the feedback by the teachers include?
- Will the implementation process occur on a large scale or a small scale?
At the end of the implementation phase, the eLearning course is ready for the users to begin their learning process
5. Evaluation Phase
The fifth stage of the ADDIE model instructional design is the evaluation phase. The four phases of analysis, design, development, implementation are complete, and now is the time for the evaluation phase.
In this phase, the instructional designer will gather important data and information and keep an eye on the results and progress so that the evaluation phase is a success and also because he can improve and become a better instructional designer.
It is better to ask users to complete a survey after their course is finished. You must also ask the trainees about their learning experience, their suggestion and the learning gaps that need filling.
Ask questions to make sure the evaluation phase is a success
- Has the model been able to fulfill its purpose?
- When will you collect the data about the efficiency of the project?
- Has it identified any training requirements?
- Has the learner gained desired results?
- Are there any gaps in the course?
- Has an error caused the learner to move quickly or lose important information?
- Has the method been determined to analyze and grade the learner’s response?
- Does the course include too much content?
A unique feature of the ADDIE process is that it is a continuous cycle and you can easily start from the first phase once the last evaluation phase is complete.
Advantages of the ADDIE Model
The advantages of the ADDIE model instructional design are as follows-
- ADDIE Model template has a solid and clear framework that lays the foundation for similar models
- ADDIE design model has an on-point structure where the instructors will know about every stage in the process and take them methodically
- ADDIE is used for the blended, online, and offline learning environment
- ADDIE Training Model helps to measure the learner’s needs
- The ADDIE process can measure behavioral outcomes
- ADDIE design model is helpful for instructors as they can easily assess the results and objectives and understand the part of the learning course that needs specific attention
- The model ADDIE measures development costs and time
- ADDIE is flexible and can be used by instructors for traditional instructions in almost all industries.
- ADDIE Model can easily align well-defined goals with an effective training program
- ADDIE Training Model is very popular in higher education and the corporate world
- ADDIE places design in the core-creation process to make it straightforward and simple to use
- ADDIE Model is capable of gathering an unimaginable amount of subject matter in the design process through research that is not possible for other models
Disadvantages of the ADDIE Model
The disadvantages of the ADDIE model are as follows
- It requires comprehensive analysis and in case the critical elements are not accessed then it will give incorrect results
- The Model is very expensive
- It does not have any provision for including iterative design
- The model cannot identify behavioral changes
- It is time-consuming
- The model ignores several realities and this results in missed opportunities
- It is ineffective in the formation and evaluation of design alternatives.
- The process is very rigid and does not have much scope for creativity
- It is inflexible and thus cannot make adjustments related to sudden project changes
- The model ADDIE is considered outdated by modern learning professionals
How to Implement the ADDIE Model today?
It is possible to use the ADDIE model today with the help of
Trello is a software tool with a structured method that will document developments and track the movements between all five phases. In case you have several instructional designers working together then Trello is your go-to tool.
Storyboarding is a software tool that uses a PowerPoint template for creating an effective course
Learning Management System is used to upload the course on the website and provide effective training to the learners. Its features include reporting to evaluate completion, uptake, and performances, setting dates for an effective training plan, and creating surveys for feedback during or after the course.
ADDIE Model Related Certifications and Courses
1. Instructional Design MasterTrack Certificate
It is a fully online course for 4 – 5 months for people who want to become instructional designers. It will help in designing and developing learning programs
2. ATD Instructional Design Certificate
This course includes designing courses, conducting needs assessments, and completing task analyses so that the person taking the course can become an instructional designer.
3. ADDIE for Instructional Design Certificate
It is a fully online course for people who want to have an in-depth understanding of the ADDIE Model.
ADDIE Model Conclusion
The ADDIE model is considered one of the best choices if you want to create an educative learning course and engage the learners. The instructional design is the longest-lasting model that promotes streamline course content and a focused learning experience for continuous improvement.
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