The research design is defined as a collection of a set of methods which are used to collect and analyze the various variables which are present in the research problem. There are different methods for designs of study, like some experimental, correlation, descriptive, experimental, meta-analytic, or review.
There are various types and subtypes of Research design, which are as follows:
- Descriptive which include naturalistic observation, survey, and case studies.
- Correlational like case-control study or observational study.
- Some experimental like quasi-experiment or field experiment.
- Experimental with random assignment.
- Reviews like systematic review or literature review.
- Meta-analytic like meta-analysis
Following are a few examples of Research design and their types:
Examples of Fixed designs
A) Experimental Research design
In this case, the researcher insurance to alter the situation and their circumstances along with the experience of the participants, which might result in behavioral changes or changes in the outcome for the participants involved in this study. Participants are randomly assigned by the researcher to various conditions, and these variables are measured.
That is why experiments are monitored and fixed before the data collection begins.
In case of experimental designs which are really good, there are few things which are of great importance like it is crucial to think that the best way to change the variables which will be measured as well as the statistical methods that would be very appropriate to answer the question present in the research.
Here the researcher should take into consideration the expectations are the results of the study as well as how will the results be analyzed.
Last but not the least in case of experimental research design, the researcher must also think of the limitations along with the availability of participants and present dative of the participants to the target population.
These factors are considered before starting the experiment and are considered a crucial step. Also, many researchers use power analysis before the beginning of their experiment.
To return mine the size of the sample and to find an effect on the given design along with given size at the desired probability, which may result in type 1 or type 2 error.
B) Nonexperimental research designs
Nonexperimental designs are not involved in the unification of change of this situation our experience and circumstances. These designs can be classified into three types which are relational designs, in which a wide range of variables are measured; and also termed as correlation studies owing to the correlation data that is used for analysis.
Correlation does not often mean causation, and the studies identify the movements or co-movements of variables. The relation of one variable with the other can be found out is by the help of correlational design along with the frequency of co-occurrence in two different natural groups.
Comparative research is the second type in which these designs compare one or more variable or two or more groups. And the final type of non-experimental Research design is longitudinal design in this longitudinal design examples performance exhibited by a group or such other variables over time.
Following are few of the examples of flexible research designs:
- Case study: Case studies are the analysis of the studies that happened in the past. The situation is presented along with the measures that had been taken. The solution that has been applied to the problem or to address the situation in order to solve the issue and the effects after application of the solution are recorded. The entire issue is discussed along with the solutions that are provided and final generalization in terms of the conclusion is drawn.
- Ethnographic studies: Ethnographic study is a collection of similar groups or culture or community. The researcher shares a lot of information with the group. Since ethnography is a cultural phenomenon, it is the study of the group’s organizations, our communities or culture of the people that are involved in the study.
- Study of grounded theory: A systematic analysis which was the construction of theories by the help of gathering methodically and analyzing of data is called grounded theory. What is a systematic research process which is involved in developing action and a process of interaction which is related to a substantial topic?
Following are examples of a few other types of Research design:
1) Action Research design
These are the kinds of research which follow a routine cycle wherein in the initially adopt an exploratory stance and after the problem is understood the develop interventionary strategy.
Jobs equations are collected during which the intervention is carried out in various forms and the new intervention strategies that are carried out repeats the cyclic process which continues till enough understanding of the problem is achieved by the researcher.
The psychological protocol was intended to Foster understanding, which is deeper, and it starts with conceptualizing the problem through multiple levels of interventions and also evaluations.
2) Causal design
Causality studies are considered as understanding a phenomenon in the form of “If A then B” and this is the type of research which is used in order to measure the impact of the change on the assumptions and norms which are existing currently.
The causes explanations are sought by most scientists since it reflects the hypothesis test. When there is a variation in at least one phenomenon, this is when independent variable results in another phenomenon our which is called as the dependent variable that is when the causal effect takes place.
3) Cohort design
Coat designers more often than not used in medical sciences but it is also found in few of the applied social sciences, and this study is the one which is conducted over a long period of time and involves population of representatives member from the population comes in, and many of these members are United by a common cause.
Cohort study makes notes of the occurrence, which is statistical in nature within a subgroup using a quantitative framework rather than studying the general population using statistical occurrence. Cohort design can often be classified as closed or opened.
4) Cross-sectional design
This is an example of research design in which there are three distinctive features which are: no time dimension which relies on existing differences rather than the change after the intervention and in this the selection of groups is based on the differences which are existing currently and not on random allocation.
These cross-sectional designs can measure various differences between people or phenomena or subjects and not a process of change. The researchers who use this design can use a passive approach in order to make causal inferences, which are based on findings.
5) Meta-analysis design
This is a methodology it is another and is designed to evaluate and summarize systematically in the results from many different individual studies which results in an increase in the overall sample size and the researcher’s ability to study interest and its effects.
The purpose of meta-analysis design is not simply to summarize the existing data and findings but also to develop a completely new understanding of the current problem by the use of synoptic reasoning.
The primary objectives of meta-analysis design are analyzing the various differences that are present in the result along with the increasing precision and the effects by which it is estimated.
A meta-analysis which is well designed depends on we are there and two criteria strict the which is used for studies selection and the information availability in each of the studies in order to analyze their findings properly.
This type of analysis can be limited by lack of availability of information, and it also with the effect the conclusions that will be reached and along with with it the more disparity there is among the results, the more difficult with it be to justify the interpretations.
6) Observational design
This is the examples of Research design, which gets its conclusion by making a comparison between subjects with the control group in those cases where the researcher lacks control of the experiment. In general, there are two types of observational designs which are direct and indirect observations.
In case of direct observations when you watch people, it is ensured that people are made aware that they are being watched or observed by you whether in case of the other method the individuals are not aware that they are being watched by you.
7) Philosophical design
This is explained as a more broader approach in which examines the research problem than an existing methodological design. This is intended as a challenge which is deeply embedded and is often intractable assumptions under an area of study.
The tools of argumentation are used by this approach which is derived from the philosophical concepts and traditions models and theories in order to critically challenge and explore for example the evidence and logic relevance in case of academic debates in order to another is the arguments rejected to the fundamental issues or in order to discuss the roots of the existing research problem.
There are three ways in which these tools of analysis are framed:
- Epistemology which is defined as the study which explores the knowledge and its nature.
- An ontology which is the study which explains the nature of the reality
- Axiology which is the study related to values
- Sequential research
Sequential research is the one which is carried out in a staged approach where the competition of one stage will be followed by another and then another and so on and so forth.
The only aim of the sequential design is that every stage is built upon the previous one until the data is gathered over a period of time so that you can test your hypothesis.
There is no predetermined sample size in the signature design, and after every sample is analyzed, a null hypothesis can be accepted by the researcher. He can also accept a different or an alternative hypothesis or go ahead and select the different pool of subjects to conduct the study again.
This also means that the number of subjects can be obtained by the researcher before A final decision is made to whether or not to accept the alternative for the null hypothesis.
A quantitative framework is used in case of sequential study, and it utilizes the sampling technique which gathers data by applying statistical methods which analyses the data.
By the use of the causative framework, this type of Research design utilizes individual samples for groups, and qualitative methods are used, such as observation for interviews in order to gather information from every sample.