Political culture is defined as the collection of a set of attitudes, sentiments, and beliefs which give meaning and order to a political process and also shed light on the assumptions and rules that govern the behavior in the particular political system.
Both political ideas and operating norms of polity are a part of political culture. Political culture is considered as a product of both the history of the political system and the members’ histories. it is also seen that the political culture of a particular country differs substantially from other countries.
Political culture is categorized into various types as follows :
9 Types Of Political Culture
1) Parochial Political Culture
When people and understanding of the national political system and they do not possess any tendency to participate in the process of input or are not aware or conscious of the output processes is called Parochial Political Culture. These people have no role to play in political culture.
African tribes and Eskimos are considered under Parochial Political Culture. This type of political culture characterizes the traditional societies in which people are mostly ignorant or backward about their political systems. There is a very little specialization of functions and most of the rules are combined such as religious, political or economical.
The orientation of individual towards political objects is not positive. the individual usually remains ignorant of the government agencies and his lover only about his local community. What is considered that he is not politically oriented or interested?
2) The subject of Political Culture
In a society where people are oriented to the system as a whole and are responsible specifically for the output aspects in such a society Subject political culture is found. the orientations towards input and the self as a political actor are not present in the subject political culture.
The individuals of the system are trained to accept the system and the outputs of the system negatively in a passive way. The acceptance is criticized and passive and is not attempted to participate and change the system.
This type of political culture is found in monarchies and developing countries where people aware of their government is system along with their flaws and accept the existence whether they like it or not. the individuals are also aware of the government policies and their presence in lawmaking and enforcement along with tax collection.
Sometimes they may not be allowed to do so in order for the people to find it difficult to how to influence the existing political system.
3) Participant political culture
This is the type of political culture in which people are looking forward to participating in the political system and thereby influence the existing working of the existing political system.
They are responsible and always busy making reasonable demands and are also involved in many decision making processes. the developed a particular attitude towards their political system due to the long exposure of the same.
Most of the political parties and pressure groups are categorized in participant political culture and they decide for themselves as to what role they can play. Individuals also participate in the activities of a political system and a part of evaluation and criticism process in the system.
Most developed societies have this type of political culture.
4) Political SubCulture
In most of the countries, not all groups that are participating are advanced. While there are some groups which may be very advanced there are also the groups which are less advanced. that is why it is seen that the groups which are more advanced tend to develop a participatory culture while the other groups still follow the subject or parochial culture.
The reason for this is that many countries in the world have many different ethnic groups. there is a difference in educational political training or social or economic background which is why the difference in the political culture exists.
That is weather backward developer subculture of their own which is called political subculture. When the political system is unable to advance rapidly and to keep the pace with the fast changing needs of the society that is when the subculture develops.
The subculture may be introduced by elite class or some other class of people but there will be certain people who will not be able to cope up with it. it is often seen that different sections of society have different political orientations and agendas.
That is why when a particular section of society is clear the distinguishable from the others we can conclude that they have developed a distinct political subculture of their own. is also seen that these cultures do not make an effective contribution in the political system when there is a national crisis.
In underdeveloped or developing countries the subconscious develops because of the difference in race, caste, religion, and language. India is such an example of a country where numerous politically diverse subcultures are present. there is also a difference in the rulers and the ruled in the political subculture.
Once the government forms they do not accept any control over it and then the read something about the working of government via the news. It is also seen that the rulers develop a superiority complex or particular attitude towards the governed.
Other types of Political culture
5) Civic Culture
Civic culture is the type of Political culture which can be compared to the developed society like America where people participate in various processes of the political system.
6) Secular Political Culture
When people are secular in their outlook, are there is a participation in the decision-making process by most of the individuals, it is worked as a rational process. The traditional attitudes are changed voluntarily, by the way of dynamic and substantial decisions.
7) Ideological Political Culture
This is the type of political culture where people are guided and controlled in the favor of determined political orientations. With the help of the educational system, controlled political socialization the orientations that are desired to be developed are sought in the political system.
8) Homogenous political culture
When the political system has been categorized and characterized by the same rules, values, beliefs, that is when such a political system is called Homogeneous Political Culture. Although this political system may have different parties and subgroups, they share common beliefs, ideas, and culture.
9) Fragmented Political Culture
When everything in a political system is different including individuals, people, their ideologies and beliefs, it called fragmented political culture. It is seen that there are various patterns of cultural development.